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Definitions of some astronomical, astrological and calendar terms, (including Indian terms)

By Walter Berg

Aberration - The apparent angular displacement of observed position of celestial object from its geometric position, caused by the velocity of light in combination with the motions of the observer and of the observed object.

Accidental dignity - A planet that occupies its house of natural rulership or falls within 5° of an angle is said to be accidentally dignified. The term is also applied to planets in angular houses and to the most elevated planets in a horoscope. See also elevated planets, dignity.

Acronical place - From the Greek akronychos, at sunset. The position occupied by a planet when it is opposite the Sun.

Age, astrological (great month) - A period of about 2,150 years, or one-twelfth of the Great Year of approximately 25,800 years. It represents the time required for the vernal equinox to retrograde through the thirty-degree arc of one constellation. According to many astrologers, the Earth is now moving from the Piscean Age into the Aquarian Age.

Air signs - Gemini, Libra and Aquarius, traditionally associated with the air element and members of the air triplicity. These signs indicate free-flowing expression of areas of communication ant the intellect.

Akashic records - The memory of nature. Akashic is a Sanskrit term referring to the etheric substratum of the universe. A permanent record of every event, sound, sight, or thought that has occurred during the history of creation is stamped upon this electro-spiritual substance.

Anareta - From the Greek, literally destroyer. Applied to a malefic that occupies an anaretic place and afflicts the Hyleg; believed by ancients to be life-destructive.

Anaretic place - the final degree (between 29° and 30°) of any sign, also called the degree of fate. Planets and house cusps that occupy anaretic degrees indicate fundamental issues with which one must deal.

Angle - Any of the four cardinal points are called Angles. The Eastern Angle is also known as the Ascendant, the Western Angle the Descendant, the Southern Angle is the Medium Coeli (MC) and the Northern Angle is the Imum Coeli (IC).

Angular houses - Are those which fall on the angle, namely the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th houses. In a quadrant system (unequal house), the angles form the cusps of these houses. The experiential focus of these house is initiatory and dynamic. They are also referred to as cardinal house because they are ruled naturally by cardinal signs and express cardinal qualities.

Anomalistic Year - The anomalistic year is the mean interval between successive passages of the Earth through perihelion. (perigee to perigee).

Aphelion - The point on a planetary orbit when it is at the greatest distance from the Sun. The Sun's radius vector is the longest at this point (heliocentric).

Apheta, also Alpheta - Literally, the giver of life; A well aspected benefic that occupies an aphetic (hylegiacal) place in the horoscope, said to have life-preserving qualities. Afflictions to the Apheta were believed by ancients to reduce vitality and endanger life. Synonymous with Hyleg, Apheta was called Almochoden or Alcohoden by ancient Arabic astrologers.

Aphetic places, alphetical places - Those parts of a horoscope from 5° above the Ascendant to 25° below, from 5° below the Descendant to 25° above, and from 5° preceding the ninth house cusp to the middle of the eleventh house. Benefics that occupy these areas are said to be life supportive. Also called hylegiacal places.

Applying - When the distance between two Planets in aspect is narrowing towards an exact aspect, the aspect is said to be an applying aspect.

Apogee - The point at which a body in orbit around the Earth is at the greatest distance from the Earth.

Apparent Place of any celestial object - The position at which the celestial object would actually be seen from the center of the Earth, displaced by planetary aberration and referred to the true equinox and equator.

Arabian Parts - Developed during the Middle Ages in Arabia, each part derived from three points in a horoscope, indicates a sensitive point that relates the three factors involved.

Ascendant (Lagna) - The Ascendant or the orient ecliptic point, is the point of intersection of the ecliptic at the given time with the eastern horizon of the place. In astrology, it is the first house of the horoscope and is also some times called the horizon. This point of intersection is very important as it is considered as "the commencing point of the horoscope. The Earth rotates on its axis from west to east in 23h 56m 4.091s in mean solar time, and due to this rotatory motion, the whole sky appears to come up from below the horizon gradually, it is the 'Rising Sign' in the eastern horizon. The period of each lagna is not equal like the Rasi division and slightly varies from place to place. There are 12 lagnas and their namings are the same as those of rasi, e.g. M Mesha, Vrisha, etc.

Ascension (long and short) - Due to the obliquity of the ecliptic, some signs rise over the horizon faster than others. Signs of long ascension require more time to rise than signs of short ascension. In the northern hemisphere, the signs of long ascension are Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, and Sagittarius. South of the equator, these are signs of short ascension

Aspect - The apparent position of any of the planets or the Moon relative to the Sun as observed from the Earth and angular relationship between two celestial objects. It is the angular relationship between planets and other points in the horoscope. These are often divided into Major and Minor aspects. The Major aspects include the Conjunction, Sextile, Square, Trine and Opposition, while the Minor aspects are derived mathematically from these and include the Quincunx, Semi-square, Semi-sextile, Sesquiquadrate, Quintile and Bi-Quintile. The interpretation of aspects depends on the planets or points involved, as well as the particular aspect itself. The degree of arc in which the aspect has effect depends on the nature of the planets involved and is called an Orb.

Ayanamsa - The Vernal equinoctial point or the First point of Aries is taken as the starting point for measuring of celestial longitudes. The celestial longitude of a heavenly body measured from this initial point is known as the tropical or Sayana longitude Due to precession of the equinoxes (ayana chalana) the V.E. point is receding back over the ecliptic at the rate of about 50" per year, as a result which the longitudes of fixed stars are increasing every year at the same rate In order to stabilize the zodiac, a point has been taken as the origin which is permanently fixed on the ecliptic and this point is different from the V.E point The distance between this fixed initial point and the V. E. point or in other words the, tropical longitude of the initial point is called Ayanamsa The zodiac, starting from this fixed origin is known as sidereal zodiac or nirayana zodiac The tropical longitude of any celestial object minus the amount of Ayanamsa on that date gives the nirayana longitude The nirayana and the sayana zodiac coincided in 285 A.D. when the Ayanamsa, was zero.

Mean Ayanamsa for any date Mean values of Ayanamsa + precession in longitude for that date True Ayanamsa Mean Ayanamsa + nutation in longitude.

Benefics - An old term applied to the Planets Sun, Venus, and Jupiter by traditional Predictive Astrology; thought to bring "good luck".

Besieged - A planet is besieged if falls between, and is in orb of, two other planets. A planet rejoices if it is besieged by benefics and is afflicted if besieged by malefics. Traditionally, a besieged planet lay between Mars and Saturn and in the same sign, however, common usage allows for a planet to be besieged if the outer two planets are in different signs.

Cadent houses - From the Latin cadere, to fall; houses three, six, nine and twelve fall behind angular houses. Ruled naturally by mutable signs (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces, respectively), they are also called mutable houses. The experiential mode of activity of these houses is naturally dispersive, adaptive and versatile, which may not be the reality depending upon the sings and planets in the horoscope that influence them.

Cardinality - One of the three modalities which finds expression through the signs Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn. These signs share a common dynamic, namely that of initiating action, setting things in motion and providing leadership.

Cazimi - Arabic term meaning, "in the heart of the Sun". Technically, this means that a planet has to be either directly in front of the Sun's disk or behind it, by plus/minus 15' arc. A very rare condition, and a powerful dignity according to Arab sources.

Celestial equator - It is a great circle of the celestial sphere drawn halfway between the poles and is the great circle in which the plane of the earth's equator cuts the celestial sphere.

Celestial Latitude - Angular distance across the celestial sphere measured north or south from the ecliptic along the great circle passing through the poles of the ecliptic and the object.

Chart Ruler - The Planet that rules the Sign on the Ascendant of your Natal chart is called the Chart Ruler and its placement in your chart strongly affects all other parts of the chart.

Chiron - A minor Planet (Comet) discovered in 1977, Chiron is located between the orbits of Saturn and Uranus. It appears to be associated with expanding consciousness and powers of healing. Popular with psychological astrologers, Chiron is considered to represent: the wounded healer, priest, shaman, one who serves humanity. Chiron also alerts us to our blind spots - those features of our personality that are obvious to everyone but us.

Combust - A planet that forms a conjunction with the Sun within orb of between 31' to 3° is said to be combust. The energy of a combust planet is integrated with that of the Sun in such a way that the planet does not operate independently.

Composite chart - A single horoscope which shows the combined planetary positions of two people, formed by the midpoints of each planet, often drawn for the location where the couple resides. The composite is believed to describe the relationship between the two people. Many astrologers focus primarily on the aspects in the composite chart and the house positions of the planets, while paying less attention to the signs in which the planets are placed.

Conjunction - When the apparent celestial longitude or Right Ascension of two bodies are the same, the phenomenon is called conjunction.

Constellation - A group of stars, bearing the names of mythical Greek heroes, and of objects occurring in Greek legends to identify an area of the celestial sphere.

Contraparallel - The angular relationship between two planets that occupy the same degree (within 1° orb) and opposite direction of declination, one north of the celestial equator and the other south. Interpretational focus is similar to that of an opposition but less forceful.

Converse - Measurements, which follow the reverse order of the natural zodiac, used primarily to direct or progress a horoscope backward in time. Converse directions are interpreted by some astrologers as relating to the year after birth that corresponds to the year before birth for with they are calculated. Others believe that converse directions reveal karmic and inherited psychological needs that relate to the corresponding progressed horoscope.

Critical degree - 0°, 13°, and 26° in cardinal signs (Aries, Cancer, Libra and Capricorn), 9° and 21° in fixed signs (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius), 4° and 17° in mutable signs (Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces). These degrees, based on the Hindu technique of Lunar Mansions (subdivisions of the zodiac according to the Moon's average daily motion, approximately 13°), are thought to strengthen the influence of planets, angles or sensitive points that occupy them.

Culmination - A term used to describe a planet's arrival at the Midheaven (natally or by progression or transit); also used to indicate the completion of an aspect by progression, i.e., when a planet aspect reaches partile, it culminates.

Cusp - The imaginary line that divides one house or sign from another, although some house systems regard the cusp as marking the center of the house. Cusps are a subject of much discussion and disagreement. Some believe that a planet on the cusp of two houses or signs will share the influence of both, while others maintain that the cusp is the strongest point, and therefore a planet on the cusp will demonstrate most clearly the influence of the sign or house it is moving into. A rationalization for this latter idea is that through progression, the planet will remain for the maximum time in the applying sign or house.

Dakshinayana - It is the period from summer solstice to winter solstice. southward passage of the Sun and it consist of Rains, Autumn and Hemanta. The period starts from Sun's entry into Cancer ( Sayana Karkata ) on June 21.

Decanate - Based on the subdivision of a sign into three parts of 10° each. Each decan of a sign expresses subtle differences that distinguish it from the other two decans as described by its planetary sub-ruler, which operates in conjunction with the natural planetary ruler of the sign. The first decan of a sign (0° to 10°) is sub-ruled by the natural ruler of the sign; the second decan (10° to 20°) is sub-ruled by the ruler of the next sign in the zodiac that belongs to the same triplicity; the third decan (20° to 30°) is sub-ruled by the ruler of the remaining sign in that triplicity.

Debilitated, debility a term applied to a planet that occupies its sign of detriment or fall.

Declination - Angular distance on the celestial sphere north or south of the celestial equator. It is measured along the hour circle passing through the celestial object. Parallels are aspects in declination, and the effect is considered to be similar to a conjunction.

Departing aspect - An aspect in which the direction from significator to promittor is backward in the zodiac (clockwise in a horoscope). A departing aspect is given a subjective and, esoterically, a fatalistic connotation.

Descendant - The opposite point to the Ascendant, usually the cusp of the 7th house, also known as the Western Angle. - Also referred to as the Setting Sign - and representing what you seek in others. The Descendant is located on the right side of your chart wheel (in the 3:00 o'clock position).

Detriment - Detriment is a term given to a planet in the opposite sign to its rulership. It is considered to be a debility and to cause the nature of the planet to be corrupted. The table below show the signs and the planets that are in their detriment in them.

Sign Detriment
Aries Venus
Taurus Mars
Gemini Jupiter
Cancer Saturn
Leo Saturn
Virgo Jupiter
Libra Mars
Scorpio Venus
Sagittarius Mercury
Capricorn Moon
Aquarius Sun
Pisces Mercury

Dignity - When a planet is in its own sign, it is said to be in its dignity. See Ruler. Example: Mars is in its dignity in the sign of Aries.

Direct Motion - For orbital motion in the solar system, motion that is counter-clockwise in the orbit as seen from the north pole of the ecliptic. For an object observed on the celestial sphere, motion that is from west to east, resulting from the relative motion of the object and the Earth (i.e. forward motion)

Dragon's head - Refers to the Moon's north node. The north node is the point at which the Moon crosses the equator moving from south to north. It is considered a fortunate point

Dragon's tail - Moon's south node, exactly opposite the north node. Considered a point of challenge or opportunity depending upon your point of view

Dwadasamas, also dwadachamsha - A twelve-fold subdivision of the signs(each composed of 2 1/2°) developed by Hindu astrologers. The first duad of each sign is sub-ruled by the natural planetary ruler of the sign; the second duad is sub-ruled by the ruler of next sign in the zodiac and so on. These "signs within a sign," by virtue of their planetary rulers, account for subtle shadings of expression found in different degrees of the same sign.

Earth signs - Taurus, Virgo, and Capricorn, which belong to the earth triplicity, symbolizing "earth" qualities such as stability, solidarity and practicality.

East Point - The equatorial Ascendant; i.e., the sign and degree rising over the eastern horizon at Earth's equator at any given time; the point at which Earth's equator intersects the ecliptic. .) The East Point plays a prominent role in how a person projects themselves to others. While it is not as important as the Ascendant on the celestial horizon, it does offer a clue as to one's identity and manner of dealing on a personal level. If the East Point is located in the 12th house, action is inclined to be more deliberate than if is found in the 1st house. One may be given to acting upon impulse in the latter case. Conjunctions to planetary energies offer additional information as to motivation and drive.

Eclipse - Obscuration of a celestial body caused by its passage through the shadow cast by another body. In a lunar eclipse, the Moon passes through the shadow cast by the Earth and in a solar eclipse, the Earth passes through the shadow cast by the Moon.

Ecliptic - The mean plane of the Earth 's orbit 'around' the Sun or simply the apparent path of the Sun in the sky during the course of a year is known as ecliptic. It is a great circle cutting the celestial equator at an angle of about 23.5 degrees. The angle varies from 21°59' to 24°36', This is known as the obliquity of the ecliptic.

Eclipse Year - The eclipse year or the draconitic year is the mean interval between successive passages of the Sun through node, i.e. the time taken by the Sun to return to the same node, is known as draconitic year or the. year of dragons.

Ephemeris - A tabulation of the positions of a celestial object in an orderly sequence for a number of dates-usually for one whole year.

Elements - Evolved from the ancient paradigm that saw all matter as either fire, earth, air or water, the astrological elements form the essence of the signs of the zodiac. Each of the four elements is represented by a sign in each of the three modalities, Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable, forming twelve unique archetypal principles. Some astrologers also attribute an elemental correspondence to houses.

Elevated planet - A planet placed high in a horoscope. The most elevated is the planet closest to the Midheaven; it is considered strong by position and accidentally dignified.

Ephemeris Time - Due to tidal friction on the Earth's surface there has been regular retardation in the rotation of the Earth, resulting in the gradual lengthening of the day and there is also irregularities in the period of rotation for other reasons. As a result, the Universal Time which is the mean solar time of Greenwich determined from meridian observations, does not increase uniformly. So a new measure of time, termed as Ephemeris Time. has been introduced from the year 1960. The relation between the two time scales is ET. = U.T. +_T. From 1984 ET. was replaced by Dynamical Time.

Exaltation - One of the five levels of Essential Dignity. A planet in a sign where it holds exaltation, is said to have substantial power. In its sign of exaltation, it is likened to an honored guest. As a welcomed guest can move around a host's home, he or she cannot exert full power within it. The power of an exalted planet is about 75% of the planet's strength. The signs which have exalted planets are:

Sign Exalted Planet
Aries Sun
Taurus Moon
Cancer Jupiter
Virgo Mercury
Libra Saturn
Capricorn Mars
Pisces Jupiter

Fall - When a planet is in the sign which is opposite the sign of its exaltation, it is said to be in its fall. A planet in its fall is believed to be severely weakened, because the sign's characteristics are inimical to the natural expression of the planetary energy. Example: Mars is in its fall in the sign of Cancer.

Feminine - Controversial term describing the polarity of a sign, ascribed to Ptolemy. The even-numbered signs Taurus, Cancer, Virgo, Scorpio, Capricorn and Pisces (which incidentally represent the earth and water signs) are said to be feminine. See Polarities. See also Masculine.

Finger of God - An ambiguous term used variously to indicate the handle in a bucket formation or the Yod, a configuration consisting of two planets in sextile and each quincunx to the same third planet. the Yod is associated with karma.

Fire - One of the four elements. The fire element finds expression in zodiac through the three signs Aries, Leo and Sagittarius and is held to represent among other things: intuition, action, spirituality, creativity and drive toward individuality.

Fixity - One of the three modalities which finds expression through the signs Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius. These signs share a common dynamic, namely that of blocking action, maintaining status quo and they provide stability.

First Quarter & Last Quarter - When the apparent celestial longitude of Moon differs by 900 and 2700 over the Sun's apparent longitude, the phenomena is called first quarter and last quarter respectively.

Fortuna - From the Latin fortuna, fortune. Interchangeable with Part of Fortune.

Geocentric position - Observations with reference to the centre of the Earth are termed as geocentric.

Glyph - An astrological symbol for the signs of the Zodiac, for the Planets, and for aspects

GMT - Greenwich Mean Time. This is Universal Time, the time at the prime meridian

Grand Cross - A pattern of aspects involving at least four planets which form two oppositions at right angles to each other. Usually, these planets will fall in signs of the same modality (Cardinal, Fixed or Mutable) each in its own element. This is believed to generate a great deal of friction in the horoscope, often with obvious and creative results.

Grand Trine - A pattern of aspects involving at least three planets which form trines with each other. Usually, these planets will fall in signs of the same element (Fire, Earth, Air or Water), each in its own modality. This pattern is believed to indicate a great deal of harmony in the horoscope, as the planetary energies seem to cooperate with one another.

Greater Benefic - A term reserved for the planet Jupiter which, according to ancient beliefs, was responsible for life's greatest blessings.

Greater Malefic - A term applied to Saturn, the planet ancients believed to generate the evils in life.

Greatest Elongation - The instant when the geocentric angular distances of Mercury and Venus are at a maximum from the Sun.

Hejira (Lunar) - The year started from 622 A.D. The first month of the year is Muharram of the Islamic calendar. It consists of 12 lunar months, the beginning of each month being determined by the first visibility of the lunar crescent after new-moon. No intercalation is made for determination of month. The year makes a circuit of the seasons in every 33 years.

Helical Rising and Setting - The planets Mercury to Saturn (as well as the Moon) remain invisible to the naked eye for some days at the time of conjunction with the Sun The phenomenon of the planets (or the Moon's) invisibility due to its proximity to the Sun is known as combust or heliacal setting of the planets. The opposite phenomenon is defined as heliacal rising. Heliacal rising means a star or planet rising just before the Sun due to the rotation of the Earth.

Heliacal setting means a star setting just after the Sun due to the rotation of the Earth.

The heliacal rising and setting of the Moon occurs when it is within 17 degrees of the Sun.

The heliacal rising and setting of a star or planet occurs when it is within 30 degrees of the Sun.

The first day of the early Egyptian calendar was based on the heliacal (with the Sun) rising
of Sothis (Sirius) that coincided with the start of the annual flood of the river Nile.

Heliocentric position - Observations with reference to the centre of the Sun arc termed as heliocentric.

Higher octave planets - The three outermost planets, which symbolize the higher or spiritual level of expression in contrast to the lower or physical level symbolized by the inner planets with which they are linked. Uranus, the higher octave of Mercury, objective intellectualism. Neptune, linked to Venus, expresses spiritual love; Pluto, the higher octave of Mars, is associated with spiritual evolvement; Mars with physical development.

Horizon - The visible juncture of Earth and the sky, represented in a horoscope by the Ascendant-Descendant axis.

Hour Angle - The angular distance on the celestial sphere measured westward, along the celestial equator from the meridian to the hour circle that passes through a celestial object.

Houses - The twelve divisions of the horoscope based on the time and place of birth. There are many methods of performing this house division and astrologers disagree about the validity of the various systems. Houses are generally interpreted to represent the arenas or areas of life in which an activity takes place or an event is likely to manifest itself. Each facet of life is said to be represented by a particular house and it is one of the astrologer's tasks to correctly identify the corresponding house of a given problem. The horoscope or chart is divided into twelve sections known as Houses. The Cardinal points are known as the angles of the chart. Beginning with the 1st house, the Rising Sign or Ascendant, where the Sun rises in the morning; opposite the ascendant is the 7th House or Descendant, where the Sun sets in the evening; overhead is the 10th House or Meridian, Medium Chili, where the Sun is at its apex at Noon; and opposite this is the 4th house, where the Sun is below the Earth at midnight. These Cardinal points are of primary importance in the erecting and interpretation of a chart.

Houses, Meaning of : -

1st house Denotes the outward appearance and the character in general. Of the body it denotes the head, the brain and the general state of health. In general it shows the personality and the struggle for life, and also the native's actions.

2nd house Indicates the financial circumstances, unfixed possessions, peace and liberty. It influences our feelings and emotions.

3rd house Brothers, sisters, relatives, neighbors, the education, short journeys, study, manuscripts, letters, ability. It has a strong relation to the intellect and the nervous system..

4th house The house and home life, inherited tendencies, our environment during the latter part of our life. Fixed possessions. It also indicates the father and our relation to him.

5th house Is related to pleasures, love-affairs, entertainments, speculations, games, - children. It is opposed to the 11th house and as it were the fulfillment of it (hopes and wishes).

6th house The house of sickness; it has also bearing on servants, inferiors, service, dress, hygiene, - care for the body in general. An important house for those who have to do with nursing and treatment of the sick.

7th house Is related to marriage, partnership, society, social life in general. Moreover, public opponents, prosecutions. It represents in a sense the individuality,' as opposed to the 1st house, that of personality house 1

8th house Has to do with death and all that is related to it, such as inheritances, legacies, wills. The sign on the cusp and the aspects of the planets placed in VIII or of the ruler of VIII often indicate the nature of the death of the physical body. Occult house.

9th house Philosophy, religion, teaching, education and everything connected to that. Also long journeys in foreign countries. It bears on the abstract way of thinking as opposed to the 3rd, the house of concrete thinking. Dreams and visions come also under this house.

10th house Is related to honor, worldly power, fame, promotion, calling or position and also indicates the moral standpoint of the native. The house is supposed to represent the native's mother, as the fourth represents the father. Many astrologers, however, reverse the order and take the fourth for the mother and the tenth for the father, considering, that the father has much to do with influencing the choice of profession or calling. But it should be noted that with parents the mother frequently takes the lead.

11th house Friends, hopes and wishes. The nature of friends and acquaintances is expressed by the sign on the cusp and by any planet posited in the house. It denotes the native's attitude towards humanity, - harmony or disharmony with fellows.

12th house The house of trial, anxiety, care, and limitation. It is related to prisons, convents, hospitals, lunatic asylums, - to anything that denotes seclusion and limitation. One must learn here, to regard oneself not as a separate being, but as a part of the Whole, inseparable from it and ever in contact with it. Occult house.

Houses, Relation to the Body -

1st house the head - temperament, outward appearance of the native.

2nd house throat - going into material life, possessions, financial circumstances..

3rd house lungs - short journeys, relations, specially brothers, sisters, cousins, correspondence, study.

4th house stomach - home, inheritance from parents, father, resting place and circumstances at the close of life.

5th house heart - spirit of enterprise, passion, love-affairs, children, speculations, initiative, pleasures.

6th house bowels - health, nutrition, inferiors, enforced labor, relation to servants.

7th house kidneys - marriage, unions and separations, husband or wife, partners, opponents and the public.

8th house generative system - sex inclinations, school of life, inheritance, legacies, death.

9th house thighs - longer journeys, widening of view, outlook on life, philosophy.

10th house knees - position or station, name, honor, calling, conduct, public appearance.

11th house lower leg - seeking after support from friends, hopes and wishes.

12th house feet - the unseen difficulties, secret enemies, prosecutions, hospitals, imprisonment, going down as regards the world.

Imum Coeli (IC) - The opposite point to the MC, often interpreted as representing the most private or secretive part of the chart.

Inferior and Superior Conjunction - The geocentric inferior conjunction of Mercury and Venus occurs when the planet is between the Earth and the Sun and superior conjunction occurs when the Sun is between the planet and the Earth.

Inferior planets - The planets whose orbits lie within the Earth's orbit round the Sun, are termed as inferior planets. The planets Mercury and Venus are regarded as inferior planets.

Jones Patterns - A set of pattern classifications for flash appraisal, as advanced by Marc Edmund Jones, consists of the following:

(1) Splash type, in which actual bodies excluding Fortuna and the Moon's Nodes, are scattered around the circle, with no noticeable gaps in the daily rising sequence.

(2) Bundle type, all planets contained within a 120° arc.

(3) Locomotive type, all planets within a 240° arc leaving an unoccupied 120° arc.

(4) Bowl type, all planets within a 180° arc, leaving one half of the Figure untenanted.

(5) Bucket type, approximating the Bowl type, but with one planet in the opposite arc as a bail, thereby transforming the bowl into a bucket.

(6) See Saw type, in which the planets are generally polarized around opposite ends of a diameter, leaving two vacant arcs of from 60° to 90° at opposite sides of the continuity.

(7) Splay type. Strong and sharp aggregations of planets irregularly spaced.

Characteristic qualities of each group, are described as:

(1) A well-balanced nature with a capacity for universal interest, whose only genius is that of versatility and the seeming ability to find order in apparent confusion.

(2) Apparent self-gathering of interests and unresponsiveness to universal stimuli.

(3) A dynamic and practical capacity, which while in a sense, eccentric, lacks stability in extremes of universality or obsession.

(4) An extreme degree of self-containment.

(5) An effective capacity for some special activity.

(6) A consciousness of opposing views in a world of conflict, with success dependent on correct alignment.

(7) A purposeful individuality, which chooses its outlet of self-expression and refuses to be pigeon-holed.

Julian date - The interval of time in days since 4713 B. C. January 1, Greenwich Noon.

Karana - A Karana is completed when the nirayana longitude of the Moon gains every 6° on that of the Sun. In each tithi there are two Karanas covering the two halves of the tithimana.

Leo, Alan (Allen, William Frederick) (1860-1917) Known professionally as Alan Leo, a dedicated English astrologer and prolific writer who is credited as the father of modern astrology.

Line of advantage - An imaginary axis that connects the third decan of the third and ninth houses. The Moon's North Node east of this axis is thought to be in a favorable or advantageous position.

Lunar months - The lunar month is the time-period from completion of new-moon (conjunction of Moon with the Sun) to the next new-moon. There are two kinds of lunar months used in India, the new-moon ending and the full-moon ending. The new moon ending lunar months covers the period from one new-moon to the next. This is known as Amanta or Sukladi system. The day next to Amavasya is the fast day of the month. The full-moon ending lunar month known as Purnimanta covers the period from one full moon to the next and begins from the day after full moon. This is known as the Krishnadi system. In this two systems naming of the months in Sukla paksha are the same, but in Krishna paksa the next lunar month is denoted, e.g. Chaitra Sukla in Sukladi system is equivalent to Chaitra Sudi in Krishnadi system, but Chaitra Krishna in Sukladi system is equivalent to Vaisakha Vadi in Krishnadi system and so on.

Lunation - The month or lunation used in astronomy is the mean synodic period, which is the number of days comprised within a large number of lunations divided by the number of lunations. The present duration of lunation is 29.530589 days or 29d12h44m 2."9.

Malefics - Old time predictive astrology considered Mars and Saturn to be bad luck. If you do not work with the insistent energy of these Planets, the friction caused by your resistance can be felt in your life as pain, bad luck, etc., but it's as much the lack of awareness that causes the problem as it is the energy pattern itself.

Masculine - Controversial term describing the polarity of a sign, ascribed to Ptolemy. The odd-numbered signs Aries, Gemini, Leo, Libra, Sagittarius and Aquarius (which incidentally represent the fire and air signs) are said to be masculine. See Polarities. See also Feminine.

MC (Medium Coeli & Midheaven) - Meaning "the middle of the skies", the MC is the point at the moment of birth where the Ecliptic crosses the meridian of the place of birth. As the culmination point, the MC is usually interpreted as representing issues of ambition, career, outward striving, making one's mark on the world.

Mean or Average Daily Motion of Planets - The average motion of any body within a given period. The mean motion of a planet is based on the presumption that it moves in a circle at a uniform rate about the Sun. Actually the planets move in elliptical orbits, in portions of which this motion is accelerated and retarded in ratio to their distance from the gravitational center. The mean daily motions of the plants are:Pluto 0° 0' 14" Jupiter 0° 4' 59" Neptune 0° 0' 24" Mars 0° 31' 0" Uranus 0° 0' 42" Venus 1° 36' 0" Saturn 0° 2' 1" Mercury 4° 6' 0" The Moon (around the Earth)13° 10' 35" The Earth (around the Sun) 0° 59' 8" The Heliocentric mean motions of the planets differ from their geocentric motions.

Mean Solar time - A measure of time based on the diurnal motion of the fictitious mean Sun assuming that the Earth's rate of rotation is constant.

Meridian Circle A great circle passing through to celestial poles and through the zenith of any place on Earth.

Meridian passage - Meridian is defined to be a great circle passing through the zenith and the celestial poles. It corresponds to geographical longitude of a place. A star or a planet passes over the meridian when the Sidereal time of the moment becomes equal to the Right Ascension of the star or planet.

Midpoint - The point on the zodiac between two planets or other astrologically significant points, believed to be sensitive to aspects, transits and progressions in the same way as the individual planets. Usually interpreted as a kind of mini-conjunction between the planets involved, the midpoints are believed to be particularly important if they aspect a third planet in the horoscope.

Moon's nodes - A term used to illustrate the axial tilt of the moon, or the direction in which the axis of the moon is pointing. Every rotating body has a 'wobble.' Much like a spinning top winding down, the axis of the spinning body moves to form a small circle at the north and south poles. Over an 18 year period, the nodes (or north and south poles) make one complete cycle through the signs of the zodiac. The position of the north node shows where one can receive greatest benefit or where one is most likely to succeed. The position of the south node reveals innate abilities and tendencies, but also where one can stagnate or be unfulfilled. In general, the nodes of the Moon symbolize one's personal connections in life. Many astrologers interpret the north lunar node as an indicator of one's future and the south as an indicator of one's past; in such a context, the north node is often associated with potential (what one can overcome) and the south node with challenges (what one has to overcome). Nodes in general: Connection; communication; union; the limits of things. North Node: vocation or application point; right-of-way. South Node: Frame of reference; hearkening point; wake.

Mutability - One of the three modalities which finds expression through the signs Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces. These signs share a common dynamic, namely that of adaptability, changeability and they provide flexibility.

Mystic Rectangle -A configuration formed by at least four planets, comprising two trines and two sextile aspects with oppositions forming from all four corners of the configuration.

Nakshatra - A nakshatra is completed when the nirayana longitude of the Moon as measured from the fixed initial point attains a value of 13° 20' or a multiple thereof. When the longitude is 13°20', the first nakshatra (i.e. Asvini) ends, the same is 26°40' the second nakshatra (Bharani) ends and so on. There are thus 27 nakshatras which completes the circle of 360°.

National Calendar of India - The year of National Calendar begins from March 22 in an ordinary year and March 21 in a leap year. First month of the Calendar is Chaitra (Solar month). Saka Eta has been adopted as the main Era. The calendar was introduced by the Govt. of India with effect from 22nd March, 1957 corresponding to Chaitra 1, 1879 Saka.

Neutral Planets - Mercury and Neptune. These two tend to be benefic when well aspected to the benefics and unfavourable when forming any aspect to the malefics.

Node - The two points on the celestial sphere at which the plane of an orbit of any rotating celestial object intersects a reference plane. In respect of the Moon, these two points are known as Rahu (Ascending Node) and Ketu (Descending Node). it is the point in the zodiac where a planet passes from southern into northern lattitude is called the North Node and vice versa. The motion of the Moon's Node is retrograde, about 3' per day (see Dragon's Head). The north node is called the ascending, the south the descending node.Neither the Sun nor the Earth have nodes.

Nutation - Nutation is essentially that part of the precessional motion of the pole of the Earth's equator which depends on the periodic motion of the Sun and the Moon in their orbit around the Earth.

Obliquity - The angle between the equatorial and the orbital planes of a body. In Earth the obliquity of the ecliptic is the angle between the planes of the equator and the ecliptic.

Occultation - Obscuration of one celestial body by another of greater apparent diameter, especially the passage of the Moon in front of a star or a planet.

Orb - Planets are considered to be in aspect when the relationship is within the accepted Orb or area, expressed in degrees of arc. There is very little agreement about the correct size of orbs, and different rules apply for the various astrological disciplines. Sometimes a planet is assigned an orb, other times it is the aspect itself which carries an orb.

Opposition - When the apparent celestial longitude of two bodies differs by 180 degrees, the phenomenon is called opposition.

Osculating elements - The osculating elements are the elements of the instantaneous ecliptic orbit of the planets around the Sun determined by its actual position and velocity components for the instant, and so the elements are affected by the attractions of other planets.

Parallel - The angular relationship between two planets that occupy the same degree (within 1° orb) and direction of declination, both north or both south. Interpretational emphasis is similar to that of a weak conjunction. See also declination.

Part of Fortune (Fortuna) - The point in the horoscope which is the same distance along the zodiac from the Ascendant as the Sun is from the Moon. For example, if the Sun and Moon are in conjunction, the Ascendant and Part of Fortune will also be in conjunction. The Part of Fortune is one of the most important Arabian Parts. Its house represents an area of life where one finds happiness and natural tranquility, expressing innate abilities. It indicates an area wherein the self is easily expressed. Your relation to the public. Things coming to you. The sign and house positions show how. Depending on aspects from the other planets, this can be a point of "misfortune."

Perihelion - The point on a planetary orbit when it is at the least distance from the Sun. The Sun's radius vector is the shortest at this point. (heliocentric).

Personal - One of the three orientations where energy is oriented toward one's own experiences, feelings, thoughts and activities. The personal signs are Aries, Taurus, Gemini and Cancer and the personal houses are the 1st through 4th houses. See also Social and Universal.

Planetary hours - A system devised by ancient astrologers that assigned one of the seven planets then known to each hour of the day. The first hour of sunrise was ruled by the planetary day ruler (Sunday, Sun; Monday, Moon; Tuesday, Mars; Wednesday, Mercury; Thursday, Jupiter; Friday, Venus; Saturday, Saturn) and each hour thereafter governed by the next faster moving planet in rotation from Saturn to Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon and back to Saturn throughout the twenty-four-hour period. Planetary energy was thought to be focused during the days and hours associated with a planet.

Precession - The circular motion of Earth's axis around the pole of the ecliptic, caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon on the bulging part of the equator. One complete revolution takes approximately twenty-five thousand years to complete.

Precession of the equinoxes - The gradual westward shift (about 50" each year) of the equinoctial points along the ecliptic due to the ecliptic due to the rotational movement of the poles of Earth's axis. This phenomena creates an increasing difference in the tropical (based upon the ecliptic and the Sun's ingress into the sing Aries) and the sidereal zodiacs (based upon constellations) or about 50" each year. It makes a complete revolution through the twelve constellations in the great cosmic year of 25,920 earthly years, or 2160 years to pass through one constellation. There is disagreement among authorities as to the exact position of the vernal equinox (0° Aries) at present, but all are agreed that it is approaching the end of the Age of Pisces and entering the Age of Aquarius.

Polarities - A division into two, usually the gender of a sign: Feminine/Masculine. Some astrologers use the terms Negative/Positive to refer to the polarities, while others, in an attempt to avoid a sexist use of the traditional term, use Yin/Yang. Greene indirectly makes a case for a non-sexist usage of the terms Feminine and Masculine by comparing a sign's orientation to the biological human sexual functions. In other words, a sign orienting toward an outgoing, penetrating one-pointedness, maps to the biological masculine, while an inward-turning, containing or nourishing orientation maps to the biological feminine. Care must be taken not to confuse a discussion of Feminine with a discussion of women, or Masculine with men.

Predictive Astrology - The branch of Astrology that deals with "Directions," the methods by which future influences are ascertained. The consideration of this branch opens up the whole question of Fate versus Free Will, and at once determines the difference between the "exoteric" and the "esoteric" astrologer. The one is a confirmed fatalist who believes himself forever under the bane of Destiny, with an entire life mapped out for him over which he has no control: no re-embodiment of the soul, no continuity of existence and with no sense of purpose-because a cruel or a kind Fate has brought him into existence against his will and imposed upon him an environment he did not choose.

The other is sustained by a belief that as a man sows so must he reap. His motto is "Man know thyself," that he may choose to sow in such manner as to reap a harvest of his own enlightened desires. It is from this standpoint that all "directions" should be made, and all rules based upon the dictum that while the stars may impel they do not compel. This presents Astrology as cosmic conditioning, but over which Man is capable of conscious control.

Prime Vertical - The great circle which passes through the east and west points of the horizon, and the zenith and nadir of a particular location. The prime vertical is perpendicular to both the horizon and the meridian. The vertical circle that lies at right angles to the meridian, and passes through the East point, Zenith, West point and Nadir of any place.

Progressions - Chart positions derived by the birth chart for a specific time after (sometimes before) birth, using a fictive key, such as "one day for a year" whereby the actual positions of planets on a given day after birth are believed to reflect issues which take place on the respective year of the person's life. For example, to examine the issues of a person's 21st year, one would compare the natal horoscope with the actual planetary positions that occurred on the 21st day after the person was born.

The theory of progressions is based on the belief that the macrocosm (in this case, the year) is contained in the microcosm (the day) and the aspects formed between the progressed planets and natal planets, or between transits and progressions will describe issues for that particular time. Progressions are held to be meaningless on their own, but are indicators of timing and the unfolding of the potentials represented in the birth chart.

PRIMARY PROGRESSION: One degree is added to the natal Planet's position for each year of real time.

SECONDARY PROGRESSION: One day's planetary movement equals one year of real time.

Promittor: the planet which promises to produce a particular event upon forming a conjunction, or aspect, with the sun, moon, mid-heaven, or ascendant.

Quadrants - The axes of the Ascendant/Descendant and MC/IC cause a division of the horoscope into four parts, called quadrants. Some astrologers assign characteristics to the individual quadrants, which can be seen as progressing from the Ascendant and 1st house to the 12th, as a progression of seasons or as the life-cycle of human development have many names. The first quadrant has been called vernal, sanguine and infantine; the second meridianal, choleric and youthful; the third autumnal, melancholic and mature; the fourth wintery, phlegmatic and decrepit.

Quadruplicities (Modalities) - Cardinal, Fixed or Mutable, the modalities are often called the Quadruplicities or the Qualities. Each represents a different dynamic - the cardinal modality initiates action, the fixed modality holds and maintains action, while the mutable modality adjusts and fluctuates. The signs divided into the three types. Cardinal: Aries, Cancer, Libra, Capricorn. Fixed: Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius. Mutable: Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius, Pisces.

Radical or Radix - Meaning "root", radical is normally used to mean a natal horoscope for living beings or any other kind of base horoscope, for example an electional or event chart drawn for the birth or start time. The term Radix is sometimes used instead. Typically used to distinguish radical positions from progressed or transitting positions.

Retrograde motion - Motion that is clockwise in the orbit as seen from the north pole of the ecliptic. For an object observed on the celestial sphere, motion from east to west resulting from the relative motion of the object and the earth (i.e. backward motion of any celestial object). Although the planets always move in the same direction round the Sun, the apparent motion as seen from the Earth is not always in the same forward direction.. They sometimes appear to move also in the backward direction. This is known as retrograde motion of a planet.

Right Ascension - Angular distance on the celestial sphere measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle passing through the celestial object.

Rising planet - Any planet that is near the Ascendant in the natal horoscope. Rising planets will have a significant influence on the personality.

Rising sign - Synonymous with Ascendant. See Ascendant.

Ruling planet - The ruling planet of the horoscope is that planet said to "rule" the Ascending sign. Likewise, planets are said to rule the various houses in the chart based on the sign on the cusp of the respect houses. The planetary ruler of the signs are: Aries, Mars; Taurus and Libra, Venus; Gemini and Virgo, Mercury; Cancer, the Moon; Leo, the Sun; Scorpio, Pluto; Sagittarius, Jupiter; Capricorn, Saturn; Aquarius, Uranus; Pisces, Neptune.

Sabian Symbols - A series of symbolic pictures, one for each degree of the Zodiac, presented by Elisa Wheeler and Marc Edmund Jones in 1925. Dane Rudhyar, an eminent and highly respected Astrologer of the 20th Century promoted the Sabian symbols in his books, he wrote: "In the Alan Leo Astrological Manuals series, the booklet entitled The Degrees of the Zodiac Symbolized gives two sets of symbolic interpretations of the Degrees of the Zodiac. The first, by Charubel, is quite valuable; the second, from a medieval source, seems completely useless. Marc Edmund Jones has given out another set, the Sabian symbol, which is by far the best; and, in fact, actual practice has proven, to those who know how to use symbols, absolutely invaluable. The symbols are presented as quite modern pictures, thus in a garb more significant to the average student of today; but they are said to be derived from very ancient Egyptian sources.

Satellitium - A group of planets conjoined in a particular area of a chart having a significant effect comparable with the conjunction of all the planets concerned, even though outer members of the group would be normally considered out of orb with each other. Also called a stellium.

Saturn Return - A twenty-nine year cycle, representing a time in life when we feel frustrated, angry, sad, confused, tired and insecure. A time when we become aware that we must accept responsibility for our actions.

Secondary progressions, secondary directions - The method of progressing a natal horoscope in which each day after birth is equated to a corresponding number of years after birth; commonly referred to as "day for a year" progressions.

Separating aspect - One in which the significator (faster moving planet of the two in aspect) is moving away from partile (the degree at which the aspect is exact).

Sidereal Time - The Sidereal time is the measure of time defined by the diurnal motion of the vernal equinox. Sidereal Time System is derived from the Earth's rotation with respect to the stars. Local Sidereal time is defined as the local hour angle of the vernal equinox. It is 0h at the instant when the vernal equinox is at the upper transit of the local meridian. Sidereal time is determined from observation of meridian transits of stars. Sidereal time at any instant is defined to be the west hour angle of the First Point of Aries (vernal equinoctial point) from the upper meridian of the place. At mean noon i.e. 12 hour local mean time on any day sidereal time is the Right Ascension of the fictitious mean Sun, which is defined to be the tropical mean longitude of the Sun at the moment, as affected by mean aberration. Sidereal time system is derived from the Earth's rotation with respect to the stars. The duration of sidereal day in mean solar time is 23h 56m 4.091s. Sideral time for a particular place and particular time increases per day at the rate of 24h + 3m 56.55536s.

Sidereal Year - The sidereal year is the mean period of revolution of the Earth in its orbit with respect to the background stars (from fixed star to fixed star). Due to precession of the equinoxes, the tropical year is less than the sidereal year by the time taken by the Sun to traverse i.e. by 0.014172 days or about 20m 25" as at present. The length of the sideral day is 365.256363 in mean solar days. The solar day is larger than the sideral day, because by the time the earth completes a rotation about its axis, the sun slips nearly a degree to the east, due to motion of the earth in its orbit and it takes a little more time for the Sun to come to the meridian of the place.

Singleton - A planet that is the sole occupant of the horoscope hemisphere in which it is placed; said to give balance to a horoscope that has nine planets in the other hemisphere.

Solar months - The Solar months are determined according to the transit time of Sun's entry into twelve signs (like Mesha, Vrisha etc.) each of angular distance of 30°. There are various rules for determining the beginning of the solar months which are followed in different States.

Solstice - The times of solstices are those at which the Sun's apparent longitude is 90 degrees (Summer solstice) and 270 degrees (Winter solstice). At Summer solstice day, the day is longest and at Winter solstice, the day is shortest for observers in the northern hemisphere.

Square - When the apparent celestial longitude of two bodies differs by 90 or 270°, the phenomenon is called square.

Stationary Direct and Retrograde point of a planet - The position of which at which the rate of change of the apparent longitude, or right Ascension is momentarily zero. A planet in its station appears to be standing still between periods of Retrograde and Direct motion. Sun and Moon are never stationary.

Standard Time - Time adopted in modern time zones. This is not true local or Mean Time and must be corrected according to longitude for the accurate calculation of horoscopes.

Superior planets - The planets whose orbits lie outside that of the Earth are termed as superior planets. The planets Mars, Jupiter, Saturn etc. are superior planets.

Tenth House or M.C.: -The point of intersection of the ecliptic of the given time with the meridian of the place is the tenth house for that moment . It is also termed as the mid-heaven or the Medium Coeli (MC) and is also sometimes called simply the meridian.. The longitude of this point is, as usual, measured along the ecliptic from the first point of Aries. The right ascension of the M.C. is the sidereal time of the moment which is often called R.A.M.C.

Tithi - Tithi or 'Lunar day' is a very important conception in Hindu astronomy. A tithi is completed when the longitude of the Moon gains exactly 12° degrees or its multiple on that of the Sun and as such there are 30 tithis in a lunar month. A difference in longitude of 12° indicates the ending of the 1st tithi, 24° that of the second tithi and so on. Tithis are shown from Sukla 1 to Sukla 15 (Purnima or Full Moon) and again from Krishna 1 to Krishna 14 and then Krishna 30 (known as Amavasya or New Moon).

Transit - From the Latin, "to go across", a transit is the crossing of a planet in the heavens over another point (usually a point in the natal or other horoscope). The aspect formed between the transitting planet and the point in the horoscope is interpreted using the inherent symbolism of the aspect itself (for example whether it is a trine or a square) and the planets involved. Particularly in psychological astrology, a transit is thought to indicate a catalyst for the unfolding of a psychological process, whether or not it results in concrete events.

Transit of Planets - The transit time of Sun, Moon and planets is the time of its entrance into the signs of the Zodiac (rasis) either tropical or sidereal, or into the sidereal nakshatra divisions or its quadrants.

Transmutation - The advantageous utilization, on the part of a controlled and developed character, of an astrological influence which otherwise might exert a destructive and disruptive force. It is a term borrowed from the alchemists who sought to transmute baser metals into gold, whereby to suggest a process of spiritual alchemy through which a baser emotion is dedicated to a noble purpose.

Triplicity - The classification of the signs in groups of three on the basis of their affinity to the four seasonal (cardinal) points in the ecliptic; specifically the distinction among the signs as "fire", "water," "air" and "earth." Like an equilateral triangle superimposed on an astrological chart, each point indicating signs of the same element. There are four triplicities, representing the elements of fire, earth, air and water. Fire:Aries, Leo, Sagittarius Earth: Taurus, Virgo, Capricorn Air: Gemini, Libra, Aquarius Water: Cancer, Scorpio, Pisces

Tropical Year - The tropical year or the year of seasons, is the time of the passage of the Sun from one vernal equinox to the next vernal equinox. The vernal equinoctial point slips to the west at the rate of about 50" per year. Therefore, the sun has to travel 360°0'0"(-) 50" = 359°59'10" to arrive at the new vernal equinoctial point, hence the duration of the tropical year is less than that of the sidereal year by about 20 minutes 25 seconds as at present.

Tropical (or Sayana) Longitude - Tropical longitude of any celestial body is defined as the arc of the ecliptic intercepted between the first point of Aries and a perpendicular arc to the ecliptic drawn through the body. It is measured along the ecliptic from the vernal equinoctial point viz point of intersection of the ecliptic and equator of date Such longitudes are called tropical or Sayana longitude.

As the equinoctial point is slowly moving backwards at the rate of nearly 50".3 seconds per year due to precession of the equinoxes, the tropical or Sayaria longitudes of all celestial bodies are gradually increasing on this account. in Indian astronomy, the initial point from which the longitude is measured is a fixed point on the ecliptic, so that the longitude of fixed stars might not undergo any change due to precession of the equinoxes. The angular distance between the above fixed initial point arid the venial equinoctial point is known as Ayananisa This fixed zodiac system is known as Nirayarna system of reckoning in India Astronomy. The apparent geocentric longitude and latitude of planets arid stars are referred to the true equinox and ecliptic of date and are corrected for planetary aberration

Uttarayana - The period covering the north-ward journey of the Sun is known as Uttarayana, i.e. northward passage and it consist of Winter, Spring and Summer. It is the period from winter solstice to summer solstice. The period starts from Sun's entry into Capricornus (Sayana Makara) on December 21.

Vertex - The point found in the western section of a horoscope that indicates the intersection of the ecliptic and prime vertical, called the "third angle of a horoscope". This point and its opposite, the Anti-Vertex, are sensitive degrees in a natal horoscope associated with fate and wish fulfillment. It is also connected with encounters and experiences over which one has little or no control. It represents the inner life of the ascendant. Calculated by inverting the degree of the Ascendant (i.e. calculating the degree of the ascendant as if the native were born in the opposite hemisphere and calling this point the Vertex). Charles Jane's work is convincing in that the Vertex showed a greater emphasis as a point of fate. Not only encounters with others, but experiential encounters are noted with the Vertex; it shows appointments with destiny.

Void-of-course - A term describing a planet that does not apply to a major aspect until it changes sign, usually confined to reference to the Moon. In horary astrology, a void-of-course Moon indicates lack of action or dynamics.

Waning - That phase of the lunation cycle from full Moon (Sun/Moon opposition) to new Moon (Sun/Moon conjunction) during which the visible portion of the Moon decreases.

Water - One of the four elements. The water element finds expression in zodiac through the three signs Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces and is held to represent among other things: feeling, instinct, sensitivity and subjective evaluation. See also Fire, Earth and Air.

Waxing - The phase of the lunation cycle from new Moon (Sun/Moon conjunction) to full (Sun/Moon opposition) during which the Moon appears to grow larger, increasing in light.

Yoga - Like nakshatras, there are 27 yogas. A yoga is obtained from the sum of the nirayana longitude of the Moon and the Sun and the sum is divided into 27 parts of 13°20' each. The first yoga (Viskumbha) ends when the sum is 13°20', second yoga (Priti) ends when it is 26°40' and so on.

Zenith - The point in the celestial sphere directly overhead; opposite the nadir. the zenith and nadir are the poles of the horizon.

Zodiac - An imaginary belt stretching about 9 degrees North and 9 dgrees South of the ecliptic within which the planets and the Moon remain in course of their movement. In case of the Moon, the deviation from the ecliptic is about 5 degrees. The belt is divided into 12 equal sectors each of 30 degees and each Sector called a 'sign' or Ras According to the western system of reckoning (i.e. Soyaria system) the first rasi i.e. , Aries starts from the point of intersection of the ecliptic arid the equator. There are 12 signs or rasis, in both the systems the first being Mesha or Aries.


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Comparison of the Zodiac systems





Aries Mar 21 - April 20 April 15 - May 15 April 19 - May 13
Taurus April 21 - May 20 May 16 - June 15 May 14 - June 19
Gemini May 21 - June 20 June 16 - July 15 June 20 - July 20
Cancer June 21 - July 21 July 16 - Aug 15 July 21 - Aug 9
Leo July 22 Aug 22 Aug 16 - Sep 15 Aug 10 – Sep 15
Virgo Aug 23 - Sep 22 Sep 16 - Oct 15 Sept 16 – Oct 30
Libra Sep 23 - Oct 22 Oct 16 - Nov 15 Oct 31– Nov 22
Scorpio Oct 23 - Nov 21 Nov 16 - Dec 15 Nov 23 – Nov 29
Ophiuchus NA NA Nov 30 – Dec 17
Sagittarius Nov 22 - Dec 21 Dec 16 - Jan 14 Dec 18– Jan 18
Capricorn Dec 22 - Jan 20 Jan 15 - Feb 14 Jan 19 – Feb 15
Aquarius Jan 21 - Feb 19 Feb 15 - Mar 14 Feb 16– Mar 11
Pisces Feb 20 - Mar 20 Mar 15 - April 14 Mar 12 – April 18

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